PROCEDURAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR VARIOUS SEAMANSHIP EVOLUTIONS
Get in Sheers and Masts
Get on board sufficient quantity of ballast to steady the ship under the operation of masting. Shore the decks fore and aft from the skin up. Have skids from the channels to the water's edge to prevent the Sheer legs from catching under them, from the channels to the gunwale, and from the gunwale to the deck to ease the sheer leg down on. Have a spar rounded off on top lashed on the gunwale to prevent the parbuckles from chafing them, and mats on the quarter galleries. Now reeve the first parbuckles from out in through two ports on the quarter, having five or six intervenings. Throw the ends over the gunwale down between the ship's side and the sheer leg (which should be towed alongside head aft), up over the gunwale and reeve them through blocks in the opposite waterways, and clap luff tackles on them. The counter parbuckle is rove from in out through the Gun ports, the ends taken down outside the sheer leg then under it and up through the main deck ports, having hands to attend them. Now man the parbuckles, rouse the sheer leg up to the gunwale, ease it into the counter parbuckle and down on the deck, letting the head rest on a spar placed athwart the taffrail for that purpose. Launch the sheer leg aft to clear the capstan and place the heel on the other side of the deck. Get the other sheer leg on board in the same manner, unserve the parbuckles, cross their heads, square their heels two thirds the breadth of beam for a loose throat lashing which should be passed on the bight with a well stretched rope. Whip on board the shoes which should be stout pieces of oak plank long enough to cross them over four beams with sockets in them for the heels of the sheers, and an eye bolt to lash them to. Spread the heels and place them in the shoes lashing them temporarily. Middle and clew hitch two stout hawsers one on each sheer head for forward and after guys, also one on each leg, one that from the sheer head lashing down for quarter guys. Clap off tackles on the guys, have four good tackles, two leading forward and two aft from the heels of the sheers. Now lash the upper block of the main purchase (a large three fold block) close in the crotch so as to hang plumb, the upper block of the small purchase on the after part of the sheer head looking just far enough above the main to hang clear. Carry forward the lower block of the main purchase and toggle it in the bowsprit bed. Bend and reeve the fall making the standing part fast to the sheer head. Lash two girtline blocks with girtlines rove through them to the after part of the sheer heads for canting girtlines, also a sheer head tackle for getting over the tressle [sic] trees. Now launch the sheers aft as far as possible without canting and haul taut the after heel tackles. Lash the heels to the bulwarks to prevent slipping. Man the forward guys and attend the after ones. Lead the fall of the main purchase to the capstan. Man the bars and heave round, rowsing the sheers up and catching them as they rise with the spar across the stern. When up, cast off the bulwark lashing and pass the lashing of the sheers afresh. Wet the deck and transport the sheers one leg at a time to forward of the partners of the mizen [sic] mast. Rake them aft so that their heels may be plumb with the step of the mast, haul taut the guys and heel tackles, lash the heels to the bulwarks and clap on an athwartship tackle to relieve the strain on the waterways. Now come up the main purchase forward, bring it aft and overhaul it down abaft the sheers over the ship's side and toggle it to the garland on the mizen mast which is lashed on the forward part about 3/4 from the heels. Previous to launching lead the fall to the capstan. Heave round. As the head of the mast comes above the gunwale avast heaving, overhaul down the sheer head tackles for the tressle trees, hook on and sway up. Place them, observing beforehand to wipe the mast dry and give it a good coat of white lead. Beat them well down in their places. Place the bolsters which should be covered with tarred canvas and secure them to the tressle trees. Put over the lower pendants with the long legs aft (they are fitted with an eye formed by two servings connecting the forward and after legs, the mizen has generally but two legs which go with a cut splice). Lash two girtline blocks with girtlines rove thru them to the after part of the tressle trees, one on each side, also two small blocks fitted with a span over the tennon [sic] of the mast for eye girtlines. Fit a stirrup and man rope to the mast head, clove hitch a back rope and make fast the canting girtlines and the bibbs of the mast. Heave round and as the heel of the mast comes up to the gunwale, clap on a rope and ease it in. Sway on the canting girtlines and place the mast in a vertical position over the partners. Give the mortice & tennon a good coat of white lead. Have carpenters below to attend the stepping. Slew the mast fair with a slue rope, lower away and step the mast. Send up and hook the pendant tackles. Set them up to steady the mast. Come up the main purchase. Cast off the canting girtlines. Take the garland off the mast. Overhaul down the purchases & sway on board the mizen top. Place it abaft the mast with the right side up. Come up the athwartship tackle. Cast off the bulwark lashing to the heels. Wet the deck, and transport the sheers as before with the guys and heel tackles to forward of the partners of the mainmast. Get in the fore and mainmasts in the same manner as the mizen mast. Transport the sheers as far forward as the curve of the bows will allow. Lash them to the bulwarks. Middle and clovehitch a stout hawser around the foremast head and set it up well aft on the quarter deck. Lash a large Cringle block on each side of the foremast head, through which reeve the forward sheer head guys. Take the forward quarter guys to the catheads. Carry foreward [sic] the after heel tackles. Shift the smaller purchase from the after part of the sheer head lashing to the forward part to prevent it from crossing the main purchase as it is taken farther out on the bowsprit. Now rake the sheer heads over the bows so that the main purchase may hang almost 4 feet clear of the cutwater. See that all the guys bear an equal strain (before launching lash the garland on the bowsprit so that it will hang head heavy. Nail cleats and saddle for jib boom. Bring the bowsprit under the bows head forward, toggle the main purchase to the garland, and the smaller purchase to a strap round the bowsprit between the bees and the cap. Overhaul a tackle from the gun deck between the night heads [sic] and hook it to a strap round the heel of the bowsprit. Have guys from the cap to the bridle ports to keep the bowsprit in its proper position while swaying. Lead the fall of the main purchase to the capstan. Man the bars & smaller purchase. Heave. When high enough, cant it to its proper position with the smaller purchase. Wipe dry and white lead the heel and mortice. Rouse in on the heel tackles and guys. Lower away and step the bowsprit. Untoggle the purchases. Cast off the sheet tackles and guys. Take the garland off the bowsprit. Overhaul down the smaller purchase for jib boom. Sway it on board. Point it through the cap and lash it. Sway on board the lower caps and place them by their respective masts. Take off the after heel tackles. Cast off the heel lashings and those from the bulwarks. Cast off the athwartship tackle, tend the forward heel tackles and after guys. Wet the deck in the wake of the shoes. Rouse the heels aft, lower away upon the guys and land the sheers on the bowsprit. Unrig and launch them overboard.
Remarks upon Sheers If the sheers (as in large vessels will be frequently the case) be wanting a foot or two in length, the difficulty may be obviated by lashing the lower block of the main purchase to the mast in the place of the garland. By this means the diameter and stretch of the garland may be avoided. If also either or both of the sheer legs be so slender as to excite apprehension for their safety, they may be much strengthened by placing a shoulder between the sheer legs about half way up after the sheers have been secured as usual. This shoulder should be constructed with jaws to fit the sheer legs and should be rounded out gradually from jaw to jaw, so that after it is placed a lashing may be passed around it and the sheer legs as taut as it will bear and frapped on amidships, the rounding out of the shoulder permitting. By this means, when the strain of the mast comes upon the sheers, they will be prevented buckling in toward each other by the shoulder, and the lashing round them and the shoulder will prevent them from buckling out. The forward and aft guys will prevent them from buckling forward or aft.
Rig the Bowsprit........Rig a stage under the bowsprit for the men to stand upon. Two thirds from the night [sic] heads out, seize on strap and hart [sic] for fore stay. The strap is doubled and lashes underneath the bowsprit with the heart on top. Outside of this, the heart and strap for inner bobstays, which is as the other a double strap and lashes on top while the heart stands underneath. Outside of this is another strap which lashes either on top or underneath with two dead eyes in it, one standing on each side of the bowsprit for inner bowsprit shrouds. Once the diameter of the bowsprit farther out a heart and strap for fore spring stay, which is fitted like that for fore stay. Outards [sic] of this, heart and strap for middle bobstay, which is fitted like that for inner bobstay. Outside of this a strap and deadeyes for the outer bowsprit shrouds, fitted like that for inner ones. And just inside the cap, a strap & thimble for outer cap bobstay. In sloops of war the topmast stays often go from the bees through thimbles in a span round the bowsprit, then to the catheads, where they supply the place of outer bowsprit shrouds. Parcel serve and leather the bobstays in the wake of the cutwater and scuttles. Serve and short splice them and turn in their hearts in the splice. Middle the laniard [sic] and put its bight through one of the hearts, serve its end through the bight and jamb it down. Take two turns of the laniard through the heart on the bowsprit and in the bobstay and clap luff upon luff on them. Hook the bowsprit shrouds. Reeve their laniards, clap luff upon luff on them and stand by to set up. [**] Hook a tackle to a strap round the bowsprit end and to this hook a boat, an anchor, or any thing as will hang heavy. Nail on cleats and saddle for jib boom. Bring the bowsprit under the bows head forward, toggle the main purchase to the garland, and the smaller purchase to a strap round the bowsprit between the bees and the cap. Overhaul a tackle from the gun deck between the night heads [sic] & hook it to a strap round the heel of the bowsprit. Have guys from the cap to the bridle ports to keep the bowsprit in its proper position while swaying. Lead the fall of the main purchase to the capstan, man the bars & smaller purchase & heave. When high enough cant it to its proper position with the smaller purchase. Wipe dry and white lead the heel and mortise. Rouse in on the heel tackles and guys. Lower away and step the bowsprit. Untoggle the purchases. Cast of the heel tackles and guys. Take the garland off the bowsprit. Overhaul down the small purchase for jib boom, sway it on board, point it through the cap and lash it. Sway on board the lower caps and place them by their respective masts. Take aft the after heel tackles. Cast off the heel lashings and those from the bulwarks, cast off the athwartship tackle. Tend the forward heel tackles and after guys. Wet the deck in the wake of the shoes. Rouse the heels aft. Lower away upon the guys and land the sheers on the bowsprit. Unrig and launch them overboard.
[At this point in the original document, Midshipman Anderson repeated verbatim the paragraph concerned with "Remarks upon Sheers." He then repeated the section on "Rig the Bowsprit" verbatim down the point marked "**" above, at which point the text changes as follows. It appears that, in the first instance, he began writing about rigging the bowsprit, then realized he hadn't described the procedure to get it stepped first. Without deleting what he had just written, he proceeded to outline the stepping process, then repeated the business about the shears and then rigging the bowsprit.]
Hook a tackle to strap round the bowsprit end and to this hook a boat, an anchor, or any heavy weight. Man the fall and suspend the weight to the bowsprit end, at the same time setting up on the bobstays and bowsprit shrouds. When the bowsprit is thus brought well down in its bed, rack the laniards and proceed to pass the gammoning. Leather the bowsprit in the wake of the gammoning and let the leather be so large that after all the turns are passed, it will haul back and cover them all and tack down to the bowsprit. The gammoning should be hawser laid rope well stretched, with an eye spliced in one end. Tar the bowsprit and gammoning scuttles. Pass the 1st turn of the gammoning round the bowsprit through the eye in its end and haul it well taut, square with the after part of the gammoning scuttle & take it down through the scuttle, up over the bowsprit & hitch its end to a pendant with a hook in one end and an eye at the other, rove through a block secured to one of the head knees with the eye leading into the hawse hole. Hook a purchase to the eye, bowse the turn well taut and rack it. In this manner clinch all the turns, observing to rack each turn and keep it close aft on the scuttle. When all the turns are passed, bring up the end between the gammoning and the bowsprit. Hook the fore pennant tackle to it and jamb the end and secure it. Take a piece of stuff half the size of the gammoning and frap all parts together under the bowsprit, bowsing each turn taut with a jigger from the bumpkin. Secure the ends, tar the leather and gammonings in the wake of each other. Haul the leather back and tack it down to the bowsprit. Cast off the block from the head knee. Lower the weight from the bowsprit end. Set up the bobstays and bowsprit shrouds for a full due with a tackle from the bowsprit end. Sway aft and ship the dolphin striker. Clove hitch the goblines [sic] round its heel and set the end up at the bumpkins. Cast off the tackles from the bowsprit end. Hook the man ropes to the bowsprit cap and set them up. They reeve through iron stanchions and set aft to bolts in the deck. Fit to the heart strap of the fore stay the fore, and to staples in the bowsprit cap the foretopbowline blocks. Fit the fairleads and unrig the stays.
Rig the Foremast.........Overhaul down the mast head girtlines & sway up as many men as can conveniently work. Cast off the masthead girtline and overhaul down those from the tressle trees. Middle the girtline and turn a toggle into it, using one end to overhaul down by. Seize the two legs of the starboard forward shrouds together about the length of the mast head from the throat seizing, toggle the girtlines below the seizing and stop it to the crown of the eye of the shroud. Man the girtline and sway away. When the eye comes up to the tressle trees, reeve the break rope. Make fast the eye girtline below the eye seizing. Cut the stop from the crown of the eye. Sway away & when high enough break the shroud over. Observe to dip the eye girtline. Lower away. Let the men in the tressle trees place it in its proper slue and maul it down in its place. Overhaul down the larboard girtlines for the larboard forward pair which send up and place over in the same manner. (It will give the rigging a snugger fit if as fast as a pair of shrouds are got over you take two reeve with the laniards & set them up temporarily.) Then shift the girtlines to the foremast head & overhaul down from the fore stay, which is fitted with lashing eyes. Bend them on at the splice and stop one girtline to each leg. Sway up and pass the legs round the mast. Lash them temporarily and cleat the collar up above the eyes of the lower rigging. Overhaul down fore the spring stay which is bent on and sent up in the same manner. Now reeve the laniards of the stays on their bights. Set them well up to stay the mast forward for setting up the lower rigging. Reeve two turns of the laniards of the lower rigging to bring the strain on the standing part. Set them well up, using luff upon luff, one pair on each side at the same time, the forward ones first. Come up the fore and aft stays. Knock off cleats and drop the collars over the eyes of the lower rigging. Lash and set them up for a full due. Reeve the laniards of the rigging in full and set them up as before. Have two stout girtlines from the mast head for the crosstrees, bend on, sway up and bolt them to the tressle trees, observing to white lead them in the wake of each other. Overhaul the girtlines down abaft the mast for the top. Take the ends underneath the top up through the girtline holes in the side or after rim of the top & hitch them to their own part. Stop them to the pigeon hole. Have a girtline from the mainmast head bent to a span from the after corner of the top. Stop the span to the pigeon hole. Man the girtlines & sway away using the guy from the mainmast head to clear aft of the tressle trees. When clear cut the stop from the span & sway until the top is up to the girtline blocks. Cut the stop from the girtline at the pigeon hole. Sway again and cant the top over with the guy. Lower away. White lead it in the wake of the crosstrees. Bolt and key it. The mizen top is got over forward of the mast. Sway up and ship the top stanchion and top rail. Reeve the fancy lines. Send up the futtock plates with dead eyes in them for topmast rigging. Ship them in the mortices. Take one half the breadth of the after part of the top, which distance set off from the lower part of the tressle trees down the mast opposite to which on the rigging goes the plate for the futtocks staff, which should be seized on outside athwart the rigging leaving out the forward and after shrouds. Lash a capstan bar a few feet below the futtock staff to which a tail block corresponding to each shroud should be lashed. Middle a fall and commence reeving through the tail blocks, one end going forward and the other aft. Snatch them in the opposite waterways. Clap hands on them and swifter on the rigging sufficiently for seizing on the catharpin legs, which are wormed, parcelled and leathered with an eye in each end and a laniard spliced in the eye ready for seizing on. Send them up and serve them to each shroud & the futtock staff, leaving out the forward and after swifters. Come up and unreeve the fall. Take off the tail blocks. Send down the capstan bars. Seize on the sheer poles. Spar and rattle down the rigging. Send up and hook the futtock shrouds and set them to the futtock staves with a Spanish windlas [sic]. Hook a large single block over the eyes of the lower rigging for the main topmast stay to serve through (a bull's eye is better), also one for the main topsail spring stay to set up to. The main and mizen masts are rigged in the same manner, except that the mizen mast has no spring stay. After the masts are rigged and stayed in their proper positions, let them be wedged for a full due and nail on the mast coat. Overhaul down girtlines for lower cap, cap sure [i. e., cap shore] and topmast fid. Bend on & sway up and place the round hole in the cap over the mast hole in the tressle trees. Take the girtline block from off the tennon [sic] of the mast.
Note. The shrouds are distinguished by knots tied in their eyes, the starboard ones being numbered with odd knots lashed 5 inches from the fore and open aft. The larboard ones with the even knots at 2 inches. Should the knots be knocked off they may be told starbd and larboard by the way the eyes are turned in by the nip around the dead eye and the forward pair which are the shortest beneath forward leg & served, then the next shortest, &c, &c.
Send up Topmasts. Hook a large single block over the eyes of the lower rigging, having the lashing long enough to allow it to hang clear of the top. Reeve a hawser through it. Overhaul it down over the ship's sides. The topmast is towed alongside head forward. Reeve the hawser through the upper sheave hole. Bring the end up and hitch it round its own part and the head of the topmast. Snatch the hawser and take it to the capstan. Heave round. As the heel comes up, clap on a heel rope and ease it onboard. Point the heel thru the mast scuttle in the deck. Sway up until the mast enters the mast hole in a lower cap. Avast heaving. Lash the lower cap to the topmast head. Hook the pennant tackles to a selvagee strap through the fid hole. Haul them taut. Unhitch & unreeve the hawser. Place a heaver in the fid hole with a rope hitched to it leading to the opposite side of the deck. Sway away. When high enough, slew the mast fair with the hawser. Place the capsure. Lower away and ship the cap. Maul it down in its place (observing beforehand to white lead the tennon of the mast). Tack sheet lead over to keep the water out. Hook the top blocks to the after bolts in the cap. Reeve the top pennants through them and the upper and lower sheave holes and clench them to the forward bolts in the opposite side of the cap. Take one fall to the capstan. Man the other. Bowse them well taut and unhook the pennant tackles, cutting off the straps in the fid hole. Have two girtlines from the topmast head and overhaul them down abaft for the crosstrees. Sway the topmast up a few feet for getting over the crosstrees. Take them under. Bend them to the after & stop them to the forward part. Bend and stop on like manner a guy from the mainmast head. Sway away. Guy the crostrees [sic] clear of the top. When high enough, let the after horns rest upon the lower cap & lash them to it. Cast off the girtline blocks & hitch them to the after horns of the crostrees [sic]. Lower away the topmast and let the hole in the crostrees [sic]fall over the topmast head. White lead the mast head & crosstrees in the wake of each other. Cast off the lashing. Sway up the top mast a few feet & beat them down in their place. Place the bolsters and secure them to the tressle trees. Tar the mast head in the wake of the rigging. Put over the gin straps, then the burton pennants which are fitted with a cut splice. Clove hitch a break rope round the mast. Hook the burtons. Sway up and fid the topmast. Steady the mast by the burtons. Overhaul down the girtlines for the shrouds, which send up & put over in the same manner as the lower with the exception of using the eye girtline, which is not necessary. Then put on the breast backstays, which are put over first to avoid chafe, then the standing backstays, then the topmast spring stay, then the topmast stay, then the jib stay, which sometimes goes with an eye lashed to the collar of the topmast stay. Cleat the collars above the eyes of the rigging. Reeve the topmast & spring stays through the bees and set them well up. (For setting up rigging, reeve the laniards of the rigging & set it up with a runner and burton.) Haul taut the breast & set up the standing backstays. Come up the fore and aft stays. Knock off cleats & drop the collars over the eyes of the rigging. Set them up for a full due. Seize on the futtock staff inside the rigging and catharpin in the rigging in the same manner as the lower sides on the sheer poles. Spar & rattle down. Send up the topmast cap, capsure & top gallt fid. Place the round hole in the cap over the mast hole in the crostrees [sic].
Jibboom. Whilst rigging the topmasts, some hands may be employed rigging the jib boom. Reeve a heel rope through a block on one side of the bowsprit cap, thence through the sheave hole in the heel of the jib boom & hitch it to a bolt on the other side of the cap. Sway and run out far enough for rigging. Tar the boom end & put over the traveller, through which and the inner sheave hole reeve the jib stay. Turn a double block in the end & connect it by a fall with another block on the head. Put a gromet [sic] with two single blocks for top gallt bowlines, one on each side of the boom. Put over the foot ropes & set them up at the cap. Put over the standing guys, then the martingale stay block, through which reeve the stay, then thro [sic] the dolphin striker to the fair leader on the bowsprit & carry it to the head. Ship the wythe for flying jib boom. Seize to the traveller the jib downhaul & brail blocks & travelling guys. Sway on the heel rope. Light out the rigging. Run out & pass the heel & belly lashing.
Spritsail Yard. Get it on board, tar & leather the guard in the slings, fit the tye, which goes with a running eye round the yard & a hook & thimble in the end, which hooks to a bolt in the cap or bowsprit. Then fit the parrel, which goes with two straps round the yard with running eyes & lash together on top of the bowsprit. About half way out from the slings to the yard arm, fit a strap & thimble for flying jib sheet & nail on stirrup for foot rope, with a round turn around the yard to hang abaft between this & the yard arm strap & thimble for travelling guys. One third from the strap & thimble for jib guys. One half out from this strap is thimble for flying jib guys. All thimbles stand on top of the yard. Over the yard arm put first the foot ropes which reeve through straps, set up to each other and tries [sic] up at the slings. Then put over lower boom guy block brace to left block. Reeve a yard rope from the topmast stay plumb with the berth of the yard, which is just inside the bees. Overhaul it and bind it to the labd quarter & stop it to the starbd. Hook a tackle from the fore stay to the labd quarter. Sway the yard on the gunnel [sic] to reeve the lifts & braces, passing the starbd ones underneath the bowsprit. Sway on the yard rope and tackle, cutting the necessary stops. Top on the larbd lift & starbd brace. When in its berth hook the tye. Seize the parrels & square the yard.
Top Gallant Masts. Tow the masts alongside head forward. Lash a jack block to the topmast head. Reeve the mastrope & overhaul it down the mast through the mast hole in the crosstrees. Reeve it through the sheave hole in the topgallt mast and clinch it around the topgallt mast head above the hounds and its own part, leaving end enough to clinch round the topmast head. Rack the parts together in several places & stop it to the royal mast head. Sway away the mast rope. Point the skysail mast thru the mast hole in the crosstrees and cap. Sway away until the royal mast enters the cap, cutting the stops as necessary. Stop the cap to the royal mast head and fit it as the lower. Nail lead over to keep the weather out. Unclinch the mast rope from about the topgallant mast head, leaving the mast to hang by the racking stops. Pass the end up through the mast hole in the crostrees [sic] & clinch it to an eye bolt in the topmast cap. Lower the mast and let the strain come upon the standing part and the same stops as before. Come up the lashing of the jack block from the top mast head & hook it to an eye bolt in the cap. Set taut & cut the stops from the mastrope. Lower the mast to within a few feet of the skysail mast head above the cap. With a girtline from the cap, sway up the jack and funnel. Tar the funnel inside & out & put it over the mast head. Put over first gromet [sic] and thimble for main royal stay, next topgallt and flying jib stays, then the starbd & larboard shrouds alternately, then the breast & standing backstays, then the royal stay shrouds & backstays & lastly truck with signal halliards rove & spindle shipped. Sway aloft the topgallant mast. White lead the mast head & ship the truck. Sway again. Tar the mast head & fit the royal rigging. Sway. Tar the top gallant mast head. Place the funnel and beat it down. Reeve Tp Glt stay through the outer sheave hole in the jib boom, the shrouds through holes in the ends of the crostrees [sic] & the fairleaders on the inside of the topmast futtock staffs. Turn thimbles into their ends. Reeve the flying jib stay through the inner sheave of flying jib boom, the royal stay through the outer. Reeve the royal shrouds through the jacks horn. Turn double blocks into their ends and connect them with falls to other double blocks in the corners of the top. Sway up and fid the topgallant mast. Stay the mast by the head stays and set up the rigging. Haul taut the breast and set up the standing backstays.
Flying Jib Boom. Lash a block to the jib boom end through which reeve a heel rope. Bend it to the heel of the flying jib boom and stop it to the end of the jib boom. Man the heel rope. Sway & light out until the jib of the jib boom end is far enough on the wythe for rigging. Tar the book end and put over a gromet [sic] with royal bowline blocks served in, then flying jib foot ropes, guys & martingale. Run out until the flying jib boom end comes through the wythe. Tar it & place the rigging, reeve the stays and martingales. Take the guys through their thimbles on the spritsail yard into the head. Set up the flying jib foot ropes to the jib boom end. The martingales reeve through the dolphin striker, the fairleader on the bowsprit & set up in the head. Rig out & step the heel of the boom against the bowsprit cap. Pass the heel and belly lashing.
Topsail Yards. Should be towed on the
larboard side of the ship with the starbd yardarm forward. Reeve a hawser through a block at the topmast
head and bend it on to the slings. Stop it
to the forward yard arm. Sway away. Ease the yard on over the gunnel
[sic] & land it on chocks the labd side of the
deck with the starbd yard arm forward. Unbend the
hawser. Tar the yard in the slings &
leather it. Lash on the tye blocks with lashing eyes round the yard. Heave each turn well taut with a Spanish windlas [sic] outside the tye
blocks. Seize on the parrel. It is tarred, parcelled
& leathered and has an eye in each end.
Seize it round the yard, leaving a long & short leg. The long leg is then taken abaft the mast,
seized round the yard & the eyes are lashed together abaft, outside of this
seize on the quarter blocks. They are
double, one sheave for the topsail clewline, the
other for the T. G. sheet. Then strap & thimble for standing part of topsail clewline. One third out from the slings, strap & thimble for rolling
tackle. Two thirds
out, strap & thimble for
Lower yards. Tow them on the larboard side with the starbd yardarm forward. Use the same block & hawser employd [sic] in getting on the topmasts. Overhaul down forward. Bend it to the slings of the yard & stop it to the forward yard arm. Sway the yard up & down. As the starbd quarter comes up, hook the starbd pennant tackle to a selvagee strap. Pound it & do the same with the larboard quarter. Sway high enough to clear the gunnel [sic]. Haul taut & let the strain come on upon both pennant tackles. Ease away the yard rope & cut the stops. Haul it taut again. Bowse upon the lower pennant tackle. Ease away the upper one. Land the yard on chocks on the gunwale fair for any guns. Cast off & unreeve hawser, take the block off the mast head, tar & leather the yards in the slings & place the chock for the D thimble. Let the leather be long enough to haul back & cover the D thimble & its lashing. Tar & parcel the D thimble. Lash it on with a strand of well stretched rope passed on the bight, heaving each turn as taut as it will bear with a spanish windlass & flare them well out on the yard so that they will not ride each other. Secure and jamb the end. Frap all parts together between the thimble & the yard. Secure the end of the frappery. Cover the whole with leather. On each side of this seize on the quarter blocks & connect them with a span under the yard to prevent slipping. Outside of this seize on the truss straps & pennants, seize on the starboard pennant, next the quarter blocks & the strap outside the larboard ones the reverse. By this means they will reeve without a cross. The pennants go with running eyes, the straps with lashing tyes. They are both leathered. Next to this seize the clew garnet blocks, then the straps & thimbles for standing part of clue garnets. One third out from the slings strap & thimble for rolling tackles. Two thirds out strap & thimble for burton. Outside of this strap & thimble for heel lashing of topmst stunsl boom. Tar the yard arm. Put over the jackstays. Drive staples in the yard. Reeve the jackstays through them & set them up to each other in the slings. Put over strap & thimble for head earing [sic], then the foot ropes. Nail the stirrups on the yard. Reeve the foot rope through them. Set them up to each other & trice them up to the D thimble. Next put over strap & thimble for yard tackles, then braces & lift blocks. Reeve the lifts & braces. Lash the blocks for geer pennants over the eyes of the lower rigging so that they will hang under the tops. (The geer pennants have a thimble at one end & are tailed at the other.) Reeve them from aft forward & round up till the thimble in the end comes up to the geer blocks. Hitch the tailed ends round the quarter of the yard. Hook the upper blocks of the geer tackles to the thimbles & the lower blocks on deck. Snatch & man the falls. Hook a stout tackle from forward to a strap round the slings of the yard. Send into the top the lower slings with a laniard spliced in to the bight. They are leathered & go with lashing eyes over the cap & a back lashing round the lower mast head about 5/8 down from the cap to the tressle trees. Shove the bight & laniard down through the pigeon hole. Man the lifts. Take through the slack of the forward tackle. Come up the pennant tackle & take the selvagee off the yard. Sway aloft by the geers and the lifts. Keeping that yard clear of the mast by the forward tackle & geers by the lifts & braces. When the lower part of the yard is square with the futtock staff, avast swaying. The yard is swayed that high because when the strain is taken off the geers & comes on the slings it will sag down until the center of the yard is square with the futtock staff. Expend the laniard of the slings through the D thimble. Secure the end & cover the whole with canvass [sic]. Take the tree pennants round abaft the mast end & reeve them through the straps on the opposite side of the yard. Turn single blocks into the ends & reeve the truss falls through the single & double blocks at the mast head. Haul taut the trusses. Come up & send down the geers & forward tackles. Take the straps off the yards & square them. Reeve a line thru a tub block on the left just inside the shoulders of the yard. Overhaul it and the burton down forward of the yard. Bend on to the steeringsail boom. Sway aloft, point it through the boom iron past the heel lashing. Clamp the boom & send down the purchase.
Spanker boom & Gaffs. Bend a hawser from the mast head to the boom about one third from the heel & stop it to the head. Sway away. Ease the boom in with a guy & point the end over the toprail. Tar and leather the boom in the wake of the crotch and sheet blocks. Tar the boom end and put over the foot ropes & guys. Seize on the sheet blocks. Set the foot ropes up inside the tafrail [sic]. Reeve the guys through single blocks on the quarter. Splice the toppinglifts into the bolts on the band round the boom. Reeve them through cheek blocks on the cheeks of the mast. Turn double blocks in their ends & connect them with falls to single blocks in the chains. Cut the stops on the hawser, sway & ship the gooseneck. Cast off the hawser from the boom, top on the lifts & catch it. Reeve the sheets and haul them and the guys taut. Bend the hawser to the gaff. Sway it on board. Unbend & unreeve the hawser. Leather the jaws of the gaff. Reeve the jaw rope through the trucks & secure it round the trysail mast to the opposite jaw. Toggle a double block to an eye on top of the gaff & another to the lower part of the top. Thru these reeve the throat halliards. Put a gromet [sic] over the gaffend & cleat it about the center of the gaff with a single block for peak halliards. Reeve them through it & a double block in the cap. Hook at the cap and secure the end with an eye over the gaff end and cleat it about 1/4 of the way in. Clove the vangs round the end of the gaff and fit gun tackle purchases to them. Seize the signal halliard block to the staple in the gaff end and reeve the halliards through a cheek block each side of the gaff one third of the way out & 2/3 of the way for inner & outer peak brails. Toggle a single block under the jaws on each side for throat brails & two others on the hoops for foot brails. Sway aloft the rings & hook the tie to an eyebolt under the top & another in the jaws.
Topgallant Yards. Reeve Tp Glt tyes & halliards. Lift & sleeve. Hook the tie to the jack block with the long mast rope rove through it. Trice up the jack block to the masthead. Overhaul down the yard rope & bend on to & sway the yard on board. Land it on chocks in the larboard gangway. Unbend the yard rope. Tar & leather the yard in the slings. Lash on thimble for Tp Gt tie & splice the snorter into staples at the ends of the yard. Otherwise rig the as the topsail yard with the exception of the straps & thimbles for burtons, rolling tackles & heel lashings for the sail booms. Put a strap & thimble for lizard. Reeve the yard rope through the gromet [sic] & lizard & bend it to the thimble in the slings of the yard. Put the gromet [sic] over the yard and pass the lizard. Sway aloft. When high enough, let a man in the topmast crosstrees & another in the topmast rigging. Take off the gromet [sic] & put over the lifts & braces. Sway higher. Attend the lifts & braces and laniards. Sway across & pass the parrel lashing. Square the yard & let go the halliards. Lower down the jack block. Unhook it from the top & hook the tie to the thimble on the yard. Haul taut the halliards. Send the jack block into the top. Haul up the yard rope & coil it down there. The royal yards are rigged & crossed in the same manner, except that the jack block is not used and the halliards answer for the yard rope. Then rig & step the quarter davits, reeve the wheel ropes, &c.
Stow the Hold. Raise in the limber boards and clear the limbers. Clean out the hold & whitewash it. Nail the battens athwart the skip. Whip on board the kentledge having previously weighed, scraped & whitewashed it. Stow it according to the build of the ship. In sharp vessels stow it low down in flat. In flat floord [sic] vessels wing it out in order to ease her rolling. Commence amidships. Stow a row on each side of the kelson [sic] forward & aft. Commence amidships again & wing it out tapering forward & aft, observing that each pig rests upon three battens & that they break joints. The ballast being stowed, commence stowing the ground tier of water casks. Begin at the spirit room bulkhead and stow a row of the largest along the kelson [sic] on each side, proceed in the same manner with the remaining rows of the ground tier, stowing the smaller casks well out in the wings, having them all bedded and wedged, bung aft & bilge free. Fill up the cantlines with barked wood to make the hold as solid as possible. Stow the riding tier on the cantlines of the ground tier so that each cask may nest in four. Stow the beef on one side, the pork on the other. Naval stores at the fore hatch. Everything else to the best advantage. The spirit room is stowed in the same manner, beginning at the forward bulkhead.
Get on board & coil away Cables. Coil them in the lighter with the sun & bring them on the opposite side to the tier in which they belong. Have mats in the lower sills of the ports to prevent chafing. Rouse the coil of the cable in & if it is the larboard bower, point it down the starboard tier and clench it round the main mast with an outside clench. Coil away with the sun, observing not to bag out at the hatchways. Tail the upper end. Rouse the end of the other half on board & tail it. Splice the two halves together & go on coiling as before. Rouse in the other cable & coil it in the same manner in the other tier. The stream is coiled in the heart of the sheets and the hawsers in seperate [sic] tiers. The chains are pointed through the hawse holes provided in board with a hook rope, the ends lashed to a bolt in the kelson and the chain paid down into the locker.
Get on board & stow Anchors. The anchors are brought under the bows in a lighter. Rouse up the end of the chain. Point it through the hawse hole & shackle it to the ring of the anchor. Reeve the cat & fish falls. Overhaul down & hook the cat, haul taut. Walk away the cat. When up, pass the cat head stopper. Hook the fish in & fish the anchor. Drop the lighter under the waist. Brace in the foreyard & up a little of the main. Hook the burtons. Haul them well taut to bear an equal strain with the lifts which are bowsed well up. Truss the yards to and haul taut the braces. Hook the rolling tackles to the opposite quarters and haul them well taut. Get up the triadic [sic] stay & hook the fore and main stay tackles. Have an athwartship tackle to hoist the anchor to its berth. Hook the fore and main yard tackles to pennants rove through the bulls eyes lashed on the yards, and the upper ends made fast to the lower cap. Pass a stout selvagee strap around the shank close to the stock & stopped up the stock about half way to prevent the anchor from canting. To this hook the fore yard tackle. Hook the main yard tackle to a strap round the crown, the fore stay to a strap through the ring, the main stay to a strap round the outer fluke just inside the palm, and the athwartship tackle to the shank. Bend the stream cable in case of accident. Man the purchases & sway away. When high enough, breast the anchor to its berth and ship the shoes. Pass the trip & shank stopper and stock lashing. Unhook & send down the purchases. Take off burtons & rolling tackles. Square the yards.
Hawse. Reeve the clear hawse
pennant through a block on the bowsprit end, and overhaul down and hook onto
the cables below the turns. Trice them
well up and pass a stout lashing round both cables below the turns. Now if the inner turn of the clearing cable lies uppermost, send in the bowline over both cables,
Get in Guns. Brace the main yard over the port just forward of the gangway and top it well up by the lifts. Hook a burton from the main topmast & one from the lower cap to the yard. Haul them taut to bear an equal strain with the lifts. Truss the yard to well tauten the braces. Hook the rolling tackle to the opposite quarter of the yard & haul it well taut. Frap the yard to the mast with a cross lashing. Put canvass [sic] on the yard about two feet outside the gunwale & lash on a bulls eye. Run the top pennant through the bulls eye and clinch the end round the lower masthead. Have a single block just under the bulls eye and another hooked to the lower cap. Trice up & hook the tackle to the pennant. Leave the block with the fall in it below. Take the fall up. Reeve it through the blocks on the yard & lower cap. Bring it on deck and snatch it. Bore a hole in the deck just over the port and through it reeve the garnet pennant with a hook in the lower end and a thimble in the other. Hook a tackle from the main stay to the garnet. Have a burton from the main topmast head hooked to the main stay to relieve the strain. Have an athwartship tackle from the opposite side of the deck. The guns being brought alongside, sling them. The slings go with an eye over the pomellion [sic] & are lead out toward the muzzle and secured with a stout lashing round the gun far enough outside the trunnions to clear the carriage. Hook the main purchase to the slings & the athwartship tackle to a strap through the breech ring. Sway away. When high enough, bowse the breech of the gun into the port with the athwartship tackle. Hook the garnet to a strap through the breech ring. Bowse on the stay tackle. Ease away on the winding tackle. Run under the carriage. Throw back the clamps. Lower & mount the gun. Carronades are slung with the slings over the pomellion and a billet of wood in the muzzle. They are taken in over the gunwale, as also are lower deck guns in a ship of the line.
Note. Topsails now a days [sic] are more commonly sent aloft with either the top burtons or topgallant yard ropes. They are swayed up & down the mast & the yard jiggers hooked in readiness to haul out by. After being bent the sails should always be sheeted home and mastheaded, so that all defects may be remedied before going to sea.
Get in a Launch. Clear the launch. Brace in the fore yard with the larboard brace & the main yard lift a little by the starboard brace. Top them well up by the lifts. Hook the burtons and haul them taut to bear an equal strain with the lifts. Truss the spar as well & haul taut the braces. Send up the fore & main purchases which go with pennants rove through the bulls eyes on the yards & clinched to the lower masthead. Get up the triatic stay. Hook fore and main stay tackles & overhaul down the purchases & hook them to the span which goes with a long & short leg in the bow and stern of the boat. Man the purchases & walk away. When high enough, if the launch does not clear the fore rigging, the foretopmast backstays should be frapped into the fore rigging. Hook the main pennant tackle to her stern & rouse her aft. Haul over the stays. Ease away the yard and land her on the chocks.
Source: The foregoing excerpt is from a notebook kept
by Midshipman Edward Clifford Anderson while he was attached to USS
CONSTITUTION (1835‑38) and later in USS LEXINGTON. It is to be found among his papers in the
Southern Historical Collection of the